lunedì, maggio 25, 2009

Confisca per equivalente e Carta di Nizza

Cass. pen. Sez. II, (ud. 29-01-2009) 18-03-2009, n. 11912
La Corte di cassazione riafferma la irretroattività dell'applicazione del sequestro per equivalente e della confisca per equivalente (nelle ipotesi di reati transnazionali), come introdotte dalla L. 146 del 2006 di ratifica della Convenzione ONU sul crimine organizzato transnazionale, riconoscendo il carattere afflittivo sanzionatorio di tali misure, sulla base delle assunzioni contenute negli strumenti europei di tutela dei diritti fondamentali, richiamando altresì il carattere vincolante della Carta europea dei diritti fondamentali.
Secondo la Corte "osta a tale retroattività il carattere certamente anche "sanzionatorio" della confisca per equivalente come già stabilito in numerosi precedenti di legittimità (v. cass. sez. 3^, n. 6342/2008, nonchè cass. sez. 2^, n. 629/2007).
Aggiunge la Corte che " per completezza va anche rilevato che, stante la natura sanzionatoria della confisca per equivalente, la irretroattività della sua applicazione, oltre che conforme all'interpretazione dell'art. 25 Cost. (cfr. Corte Cost. n. 19/1974) è imposta anche dall'art. 7, comma 1 della Convenzione per la Salvaguardia dei diritti dell'uomo, ratificata con L. 4 agosto 1955, n. 848, ai sensi del cui disposto "non può essere inflitta una pena più grave di quella che sarebbe spettata al tempo in cui il reato è stato consumato".
Tale ultimo principio è stato riaffermato anche dalla Carta dei diritti fondamentali dell'Unione europea (più conosciuta come Carta di Nizza) all'art. 49, cui non può essere contestato, secondo quanto affermato dalla Corte costituzionale sin dal 2002 (sentenza n. 135/2002), il "carattere espressivo di principi comuni agli ordinamenti europei".

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